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Gilles CLEMENT

cerco-Gilles Clément
Gilles CLEMENT
Directeur de Recherche CNRS
Fax : (+33)(0)5-62-17-28-09
Espace et contexte 3D

THEMATIQUE DE RECHERCHE

Représentation interne de l'espace chez l'homme, ou comment des sujets normaux, des astronautes en apesanteur et des patients vestibulo-lésés estiment leur inclinaison par rapport à la verticale, évaluent la distance et la profondeur des objets et se représentent mentalement leur environnement tri-dimensionnel

TECHNIQUES

    Conditions expérimentales

  • Vol orbital : Station Spatiale Internationale, Navette Spatiale
  • Vol parabolique : Airbus A300 Zero-G, NASA C-9
  • Patients vestibulo-lésés
  • Simulations des conditions de vol spatial (simulateur de vol, bed rest, hypergravité)    
     Stimulations
  • Fauteuil tournant autour d'un axe vertical ou incliné
  • Centrifugeuses à bras court (0.5 m) et moyen (3.0 m)
  • Chariot linéaire
  • Lunettes de réalité virtuelle
  • Stimulation optocinétique
  • Stimulation vibrotactile

    Mesures

  • Psychophysique : perception de l'orientation spatiale, du mouvement, des distances
  • Neuropsychologie : représentation mentale (écriture, dessins, illusions visuelles)
  • Comportement : Enregistrement des mouvements des yeux (H/V, torsion, vergence)
  • Imagerie cérébrale


Les astronautes européens s'entrainent sur l'expérience 3DSPACE. Photo ESALogo de l'expérience 3DSPACE. Concept AnthroTronixGreg Chamitoff effectuant 3DSPACE a bord de l'ISS. Photo NASA

RECHERCHES EN COURS

    Station Spatiale Internationale

  • Mental representation of spatial cues during spaceflight (3DSPACE) – G Clément (PI) & C Lathan
  • Microgravity effects on human physiological mechanisms of perception and mental imagery (IRIS) – G  Clément & R Thirsk (PI)
  • Validation of centrifugation as a countermeasure for otolith deconditioning during space flight (SPIN) – F   Wuyts (PI), G Clément, S Moore, B Cohen
    Navette Spatiale
  • Ambiguous tilt and translation motion cues after space flight (ZAG) – G Clément (PI), S Wood, D Harm, A   Rupert     

    Bed Rest

  • Centrifugation as a countermeasure during bed rest (AG) – ESA Artificial Gravity Expert Group (PI): A  Clarke, G Clément, D Linnarsson, B Paloski, R Rittwegger, F Wuyts

    Clinique

  • Perception 3D chez les patients vestibulo-lésés – G Clément & O Deguine
  • Imagerie fonctionnelle pendant la compensation vestibulaire – G Clément & O Deguine

La centrifugeuse SPIN de l'ESA a la Cité des Etoiles a Moscou. Photo ESALa centrifugeuse SAHC de l'ESA est utilisée pour étudier les effets de la gravité artificielle pendant les bed rests. Photo CNRS

ENSEIGNEMENT

  • Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil, Toulouse
  • Centre Régional d’Education Physique et Sportive, Toulouse
  • Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile, Toulouse, France
  • Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne
  • Université Claude Bernard, Lyon
  • Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris
  • International Space University, Strasbourg
  • Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio
  • University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee
  • Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio
Remise du Life Science Book Award de l'IAF a Glasgow (Septembre 2008)

DISTINCTIONS
  • Médaille Mission Sciences de la Vie CNES-NASA (1985)
  • Médaille Coopération Spatiale Franco-Soviétique CNES-Interkosmos (1986)
  • Médaille de Bronze du CNRS (1988)
  • NASA Neurolab Mission Principal Investigator Award (1998)
  • Luigi Napolitano Litterature Award of the International Academy of Astronautics (2005)
  • Life Science Book Award of the International Academy of Astronautics (2008)
ACTUALITE



Article paru dans New Scientist (Septembre 2008)



Article paru dans Libération (Octobre 2008)Article paru dans Aviation Week (Octobre 2008)


PUBLICATIONS


       1981
  • Clément G, Courjon JH, Jeannerod M, Schmid R (1981) Unidirectional habituation of vestibulo-ocular responses by repeated rotational or optokinetic stimulations in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 42: 34-42
  • Jeannerod M, Clément G, Courjon JH, Schmid R (1981) Unilateral habituation of vestibulo-ocular responses in the cat. Annals New York Academy of Sciences 374: 340-351
      1982
  • Lestienne F, Clément G, Lafon JL, Gurfinkel VS, Capraro R, Kojarinov V, Lepsky A (1982) Premier vol habité franco-soviétique: l'expérience "Posture". Proceedings of the 33rd Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, AIAA (ed) New York, IAF 82-183: 1-6
  • Clément G, Lestienne F, Gurfinkel V (1982) Postural muscular activity related to the activie mobilization of the arm – The role of vision. Journal de Physiologie 78: B2-B3

      1983

  • Clément G, Gurfinkel VS, Lestienne F, Lipshits MI, Popov KE (1983) Ajustements posturaux associés à la mobilisation volontaire du bras en situation de microgravité. Comptes-Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris, t 296, série III: 789-792
  • Clément G, Magnin M (1983) Visual influence on postural control in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 52: 429-438
  • Clément G, Droulez J (1983) Microgravity as an Additional Tool for Research in Human Physiology with Emphasis on Sensori-Motor Systems. ESA BR-15, European Space Agency: Noordwijk, ISSN 0250-1589
  • Clément G, Gurfinkel VS, Lestienne F, Lipshits MI, Popov KE (1983) Contrôle de la posture en microgravité. In: Physiologie Spatiale. CNES-CEPADUES (eds) Toulouse, pp 105-118
  • Clément G, Gurfinkel VS, Lestienne F, Lipschits MI, Popov KE (1983) A study of mechanisms of posture maintenance in the weightless state. The Physiologist 26, 6 (Suppl): S86-S89
      1984
  • Clément G, Magnin M (1984) Effects of accessory optic system lesions on vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 55: 49-59
  • Clément G, Gurfinkel VS, Lestienne F, Lipshits MI, Popov KE (1984) Adaptation of postural control to weightlessness. Experimental Brain Research 57: 61-72
  • Lestienne F, Clément G (1984) Ajustements posturaux associés au mouvement du bras en apesanteur. Revue de Médecine Fonctionnelle 17: 123-144
  • Lestienne F, Clément G (1984) Ajustements posturaux associés au mouvement du bras en apesanteur. In: Results of Space Experiment in Physiology and Medicine. AGARD CP-377, 4: 1-9
      1985
  • Clément G, Gurfinkel VS, Lestienne F, Lipshits MI, Popov KE (1985) Changes of posture during transient perturbations in microgravity. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 56: 666-671
  • Clément G, Rézette D (1985) Motor behavior underlying the control of an upside-down vertical posture. Experimental Brain Research 59: 478-484
  • Clément G, Jacquin T, Berthoz A (1985) Habituation of postural readjustments to moving visual scenes. In: Vestibular and Visual Control on Posture and Locomotor Equilibrium. M Igarashi, FO Black (eds) Karger, Basel, pp 99-104
  • Clément G, Lestienne F, Gurfinkel VS (1985) Mechanisms of postural control in weightlessness. In: Vestibular and Visual Control on Posture and Locomotor Equilibrium. M Igarashi, FO Black (eds) Karger, Basel, pp 158-163
  • Courjon JH, Clément G, Schmid R (1985) The influence of interstimulus interval on the development of vestibular habituation to repeated velocity steps. Experimental Brain Research 59: 10-15


      1986
  • Clément G, Viéville T, Lestienne F, Berthoz A (1986) Modifications of gain asymmetry and beating field of vertical optokinetic nystagmus in microgravity. Neuroscience Letters 63: 271-274
  • Clément G, Viéville T, Lestienne F, Berthoz A (1986) Preliminary results of the "Equilibrium and Vertigo" experiment performed during STS 51-G Shuttle spaceflight. In: Space Physiology. JJ Hunt (ed) ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, ESA SP-237, pp 129-135
  • Viéville T, Clément G, Lestienne F, Berthoz A (1986) Adaptive modifications of the optokinetic nystagmus and vestibulo-ocular reflexes in microgravity. In: Adaptive Processes in Visual and Oculomotor Systems. EL Keller, DS Zee (eds) Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 111-120
      1987
  • Clément G, Berthoz A, Lestienne F (1987) Adaptive changes in perception of body orientation and mental image rotation in microgravity. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 58, 9 (Suppl): A159-A163
  • Clément G, André-Deshays C (1987) Motor activity and visually induced postural reactions during two-g and zero-g phases of parabolic flight. Neuroscience Letters 79: 113-116Clément G (1987) Mise en évidence d'une programmation centrale des ajustements posturaux liés aux mouvements volontaires du bras. Science et Motricité 2: 10-14
  • Clément G (1987) La posturographie dans l'étude de la contribution du système vestibulaire au contrôle de la posture. In: Où va la Posturographie? Intérêt de la Posturographie dans le Diagnostic Oto-Neurologique et la Thérapeutique. M Toupet (ed) IPSEN, Paris, pp 8-10
  • Clément G (1987) Etude stabilométrique et électromyographique de la posture debout sur les mains. In: Critique de la Posturologie. PM Gagey (ed) Association Française de Posturologie, Paris, 14, pp 1-4
  • Clément G, Viéville T, Lestienne F, Berthoz A (1987) Adaptive modifications of posture and oculomotor reflexes in microgravity. In: Three Decades of Life Science Research in Space. NASA Life Sciences (ed) Washington DC, pp 216-217 
  • Pozzo T, Clément G (1987) Déterminants sensori-moteurs du maintien de l'appui tendu renversé. In: Recherches en Activité Physique et Sportive. J Van Hoecke (ed) ACAPS-INSEP, Rennes, pp 93-94
      1988
  • Clément G (1988) Adaptation of postural control to long-lasting unusual constraints or repetitive stimulations. In: Posture and Gait: Development, Adaptation and Modulation. B Amblard, A Berthoz, F Clarac (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 145-153 
  • Clément G, Berthoz A (1988) Adaptation of visual-vestibular interaction in microgravity. In: Programs in Space Biomedicine. M Igarashi, AW Holland (eds) USRA/DSB, Houston, pp 1-12
  • Clément G, Lestienne F (1988) Adaptive modifications of postural attitude in conditions of weightlessness. Experimental Brain Research 72: 381-389
  • Clément G, Pozzo T, Berthoz A (1988) Contribution of eye positioning to control of the upside-down standing posture. Experimental Brain Research 73: 569-576
  • Clément G, Berthoz A (1988) Vestibulo-ocular reflex and optokinetic nystagmus in microgravity. Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 42: 1-4
  • Clément G, Berthoz A, Pozzo T (1988) De la posture debout sur les mains. Convergence, Lynx Optique (ed) Paris, n°36, pp 9-10 
  • Lestienne F, Clément G (1988) Adaptation sensorimotrice à l'absence de pesanteur: le contrôle postural. Médecine Aéronautique et Spatiale XXVII, 105, pp 36-40
  • Pozzo T, Clément G, Berthoz A (1988) Etude du contrôle moteur de l'appui tendu renversé sur les mains. Agressologie 29, 9: 649-651
  • Pozzo T, Clément G (1988) Application de la stabilométrie à l'étude des mécanismes moteurs d'une figure acrobatique: l'appui tendu renversé. Science et Sports 3: 173-180
      1989
  • Clément G (1989) Les progrès en physiologie humaine: les neurosciences. Proceedings du Colloque International "L'Espace, Facteur de Progrès pour la Médecine de Demain". CNES/CCIT (eds) Toulouse, pp 19-27
  • Clément G, André-Deshays C, Lathan CE (1989) Effects of gravitoinertial force variations on vertical gaze direction during oculomotor reflexes and visual fixation. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 60: 1194-1198
      1990
  • Clément G, Berthoz A (1990) Cross-coupling between horizontal and vertical eye movements during optokinetic nystagmus and optokinetic afternystagmus elicited in microgravity. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm) 109: 179-187
  • Clément G, Lathan CE (1990) Up-down asymmetry of vertical optokinetic nystagmus elicited in microgravity. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 60: 1194-1198
  • Clément G (1990) La physiologie neurosensorielle et l'espace. Bulletin de la Société d'Ophtalmologie 162: 13-21
      1991
  • Clément G, Lathan CE (1991) Effects of static tilt about roll axis on horizontal and vertical optokinetic nystagmus and optokinetic afternystagmus in humans. Experimental Brain Research 84: 335-341
      1992
  • Clément G, Reschke MF, Verrett CM, Wood SJ (1992) Effects of gravitoinertial force variations on optokinetic nystagmus and on perception of visual stimulus orientation. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 63: 771-777
  • Clément G, Wood SJ, Reschke MF (1992) Effects of microgravity on the interaction of vestibular and optokinetic nystagmus in the vertical plane. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 63: 778-784

L'astronaute francais Philippe Perrin effectuant l'expérience OVAR a son retour de la mission STS-111 de la Navette Spatiale.  Photo NASA

      1993
  • Bagiana F, Clément G, Monchoux F, Barer A (1993) Human physiological model. Preparing for the Future. ESA's Technology Programme Quarterly 3: 12-13
  • Clément G (1993) Les retombées médicales en physiologie neurosensorielle spatiale. Bulletin de la Société d'Ophtalmologie 178: 46-65
  • Clément G, Popov KE, Berthoz A (1993) Effects of prolonged weightlessness on human horizontal and vertical optokinetic nystagmus and optokinetic after-nystagmus. Experimental Brain Research 94: 456-462
  • Clément G, Lathan CE, Berthoz A (1993) Up-down asymmetry of vertical optokinetic nystagmus and after-nystagmus elicited in microgravity. IAF/IAA-93-G.1.132. Proceedings of the 44th International Astronautical Congress, October 16-22, 1993, Graz, Austria
      1994
  • Clément G, Berthoz A (1994) Influence of gravity on the processing of information by the central nervous system. Proceedings of the 5th European Symposium on Life Sciences Research in Space. Arcachon, France, Sept 26-Oct 1, 1993, ESA SP-366, Noordwijk, pp 333-338
      1995
  • Clément G (1995) Le contrôle du regard. Nouvelle Revue d'Aéronautique et d'Astronautique 6:49-54
  • Clément G, Braak L, Arénalès O (1995) Analytical definition and proposed concept for the manned infrastructure of a lunar outpost. Acta Astronautica 36: 559-565
  • Clément G, Petropoulos A, Darlot C, Berthoz A (1995) Eye movements and motion perception during off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) at small angles of tilt after spaceflight. Acta OtoLaryngologica (Stockholm) 115: 603-609


 Expériences sur la perception visuelle et l'orientation spatiale effectuées a bord de l'Airbus A300 Zero-G. Photos Novespace & ESA

      1996
  • Clément G (1996) Les retombées de l’espace. Impact Médecin Hebdo 317: 28
  • Clément G, Reschke MF (1996) Neurosensory and sensory-motor functions. In: Biological and Medical Research in Space: An Overview of Life Sciences Research in Microgravity. Moore D, Bie P, and Oser H (eds), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Chapter 4, pp 178-258
  • Clément G, Wood SJ, Reschke MF (1996) Spatial transformation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex during spaceflight. Proceedings of the 6th European Symposium on Life Sciences Research in Space. Trondheim, Norway, June 16-20, 1996, ESA SP-390, Noordwijk, pp 77-81
      1997
  • Clément G, Güell A (1997) Analytical requirements in the biomedical sciences for a lunar observatory. In: A Lunar-Based Analytical Laboratory. CW Gehrke, MK Hobish, RW Zumwalt, M Prost, J Desgrès (eds) A. DEEPAK Publishing, Hampton, Virginia, pp 208-214
  • Cohen B, Clément G, Curthoys I, Moore S, Kubo T, Koizuka I, Dai M, Berthoz A, Raphan T (1997) Adaptation to linear acceleration in space (ATLAS). Spatial orientation of vestibulo-ocular reflex and of velocity storage. Life Sciences Program Task. NASA TM-4801, pp 157-160
  • Lathan CE, Clément G (1997) Adaptation of the neurovestibular system to spaceflight. In: Fundamentals of Space Life Sciences. S Churchill (ed) Krieger Publishing Cie, Malabar FL, Volume 1, Chapter 5, pp 65-82
  • Reschke MF, Berthoz A, Clément G, Cohen B, Igarashi M, Paloski W, Parker D (1997) Canal-otolith interaction studies. Life Sciences Program Task. NASA TM-4801, pp 89-91
  • Torte MP, Clément G, Courjon JH, Magenes G (1997) Absence of habituation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 116: 73-82
      1998
  • Bellossi F, Clément G, Cohen B, Cork M (1998) EDEN. A payload dedicated to neurovestibular research for Neurolab. Acta Astronautica 42, 1-8: 59-67 
  • Bellossi F, Clément G, Cohen B, Moore S, Cork M (1998) EDEN: Advanced neurovestibular research facility used onboard Neurolab: Performances and preliminary results. IAF/IAA-98-G.1.05. Proceedings of the 49th International Astronautical Congress, Sept 28-Oct 2, 1998; Melbourne, Australia
  • Clément G (1998) Alteration of eye movements and motion perception in microgravity. Brain Research Reviews 28: 161-172
  • Clément G (1998) Astronautes: Une étonnante faculté d’adaptation. Science et Vie 204 (septembre 1998), pp 78-79
  • Clément G (1998) Orientation spatiale en apesanteur. Pour la Science 253 (novembre 1998), pp 48-49
  • Clément G, Lathan CE (1998) Effects of hypergravity on optokinetic after-nystagmus and perceived direction of optokinetic stimulation. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 69: 583-589
  • Clément G, Lathan CE (1998) Postural reactions induced by vertical motion of visual scenes in humans and the effects of weightlessness. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm) 118: 466-473
      1999
  • Clément G (1999) Space biology. In: Keys to Space. A Houston, M Rycroft (eds) McGraw Hill, Boston, Chapter 18.1, pp 18-3 - 18-12
  • Clément G (1999) Neuroscience. In: Keys to Space. A Houston, M Rycroft (eds) McGraw Hill, Boston, Chapter 18.5, pp 18-35 - 18-42
  • Clément G, Wood SJ, Lathan CE, Peterka RJ, Reschke MF (1999) Effects of body orientation and rotation axis on pitch visual-vestibular interaction. Journal of Vestibular Research 9: 1-11
  • Clément G, Wood SJ, Reschke MF, Berthoz A, Igarashi M (1999) Yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interaction in weightlessness. Journal of Vestibular Research 9: 207-220
  • Moore ST, Cohen B, Clément G, Raphan T (1999) Low-frequency otolith function in microgravity: a re-evaluation of the otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation (OTTR) hypothesis. Proceedings of the First Biennal Space Biomedical Investigators’ Workshop. January 11-13, 1999, League City, Texas, pp 425-428
L'astronaute francais Léopold Eyards effectuant l'expérience ZAG a son retour de l'ISS (Mai 2008). Photo NASA
         

      2000
  • Lathan CE, Wang Z, Clément G (2000) Changes in the vertical size of a three-dimensional object drawn in weightlessness by astronauts. Neuroscience Letters 295: 37-40
    Moore ST, Clément G, Raphan T, Cohen B (2000) The human response to artificial gravity in a weightlessness environment: Results from the Neurolab centrifugation experiments. In: Space Technology and Applications International Forum 2000. MS El-Genk (ed) American Institute of Physics, College Park, pp 206-2111
      2001
  • Clément G (2001) The human sensory and balance system. In: A World Without Gravity. B Fitton, B Battrick (eds) ESA Publication Division, Noordwijk, SP-1251, pp 93-111
  • Clément G, Moore S, Raphan T, Cohen B (2001) Perception of tilt (somatogravic illusion) in response to sustained linear acceleration during space flight. Experimental Brain Research 138: 410-418
  • Clément G, Deguine O, Parant M, Costes-Salon MC, Vasseur-Clausen P, Pavy Le Traon A (2001) Effects of cosmonaut vestibular training on vestibular function prior to spaceflight. European Journal of Applied Physiology 85: 539-545
  • Clément G, Deguine O, Vasseur-Claussen P, Pavy-Le Traon A (2001) Effets d’un entraînement vestibulaire sur les cinétoses et le nystagmus chez le sujet sain. In: Dysfonctionnements du Système Vestibulaire. Compensation et Rééducation. M Lacour (ed) Editions Solal, Marseille, pp 247-255
  • Deguine O, Clément G, Calmels MN (2001) Les explorations de la posture et de l’équilibre: Perspectives d’avenir. Les Cahiers d’ORL XXXV 8: 403-408
  • Moore S, Clément G, Raphan T, Cohen B (2001) Ocular counterrolling induced by centrifugation during orbital space flight. Experimental Brain Research 137: 323-335
  • Viguier A, Clément G, Trotter Y (2001) Distance perception within near visual space. Perception 30: 115-124
      2002
  • Clément G, Flandrin JM, Courjon JH (2002) Comparison between habituation of the cat vestibulo-ocular reflex by velocity steps and sinusoidal vestibular stimulation in the dark. Experimental Brain Research 142: 259-267
  • Clément G, Maciel F, Deguine O (2002) Perception of tilt and ocular torsion of normal human subjects during eccentric rotation. Otology and Neurotology 23: 958-966
  • Deguine O, Clément G, Pavy-LeTraon A (2002) Effets de l’entraînement vestibulaire sur la fonction vestibulaire. Le Spécialiste de Médecine du Sport 40: 21-23
  • Maciel F, Clément G (2002) Evaluating object distance: Implication for space research. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 9: 47-48
      2003
  • Clément G (2003) Fundamentals of Space Medicine. Microcosm Press: El Segundo, CA, and Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, ISBN 1-4020-1598-4
  • Clément G (2003) A review of the effects of space flight on the asymmetry of vertical optokinetic and vestibulo-ocular reflexes. Journal of Vestibular Research 13: 255-263
  • Clément G, Angerer O, Schmitt D (2003) Life in a spin—What has been learnt from space. ESA Bulletin 116: 38-48
  • Clément G, Berthoz A, Cohen B, Moore S, Curthoys I, Dai M, Koizuka I, Kubo T, Raphan T (2003) Perception of the spatial vertical during centrifugation and static tilt. In: The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space. J Buckey, J Homick (eds) US Government Printing Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, NASA SP-2003-535, pp 5-10
  • Cohen B, Clément G, Moore S, Curthoys I, Dai M, Koizuka I, Kubo T, Raphan T (2003) Adaptation of linear acceleration in space (ATLAS) experiments: Equipment and procedure. In: The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space. J Buckey, J Homick (eds) US Government Printing Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, NASA SP-2003-535, pp 279-284
  • Moore S, Cohen B, Clément G, Curthoys I, Dai M, Koizuka I, Kubo T, Raphan T (2003) Ocular counter-rolling during centrifugation and static tilt. In: The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space. J Buckey, J Homick (eds) US Government Printing Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, NASA SP-2003-535, pp 11-17
  • Moore S, Clément G, Dai M, Raphan T, Cohen B (2003) Ocular and perceptual responses to linear acceleration in microgravity: Alterations in otolith function on the COSMOS and Neurolab flights. Journal of Vestibular Research 13: 377-393
  • Reber A, Courjon JH, Denise P, Clément G (2003) Vestibular decompensation in labyrinthectomized rats placed in weightlessness during parabolic flight. Neuroscience Letters 344: 122-126

Ouvrages publiés dans la Space Technology Series de Springer (2005, 2006, 2007)

      2004
  • Arnesen T, Olsen M, Sylvestre B, Goulding C, Clément G (2004) Human perception of body longitudinal axis in parabolic flight. IAF/IAC-04-G.P02. Proceedings of the 55th International Astronautical Congress, October 2-8, 2004, Vancouver, Canada
  • Clément G (2004) Adaptation to linear acceleration during and after space flight. Advances in Space Research 161 (Suppl): 79-85
  • Clément G, Pavy-Le Traon A (2004) Centrifugation as a countermeasure during actual and simulated spaceflight: A review. European Journal of Applied Physiology 92: 235-248
  • Clément G, Maciel F (2004) Adjustment of the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as a function of perceived target distance. Neuroscience Letters 366: 115-119
  • Clément G, Trotter Y (2004) Critique de l'ouvrage "Visions de Mars". Pour la Science 326: 154
    Scheid P, Barrero E, Boon JP, Clément G, Dobson A, Gruen GU, Gunga HC, Heppener M, Moreau R, Westall F, Tropea C (2004) European Utilisation Plan for the International Space Station. European Space Agency (ed), Paris. ESA BR-1270
      2005
  • Arnesen TA, Olsen MH, Sylvestre B, Clément G (2005) Perception of body vertical in microgravity during parabolic flight. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 12: 17-18
  • Clément G (2005) The maintenance of physiological function in humans during spaceflight. International SportMed Journal 6 (4): 185-198
  • Clément G (2005) Human balance system. In: Benefits of Human Spaceflight. A Wilson (ed) ESA BR-230, ESA Publication Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, pp 25-26
  • Clément G (2005) Fundamentals of Space Medicine. 2nd Edition. Microcosm Press: El Segundo, CA, and Springer: New York, ISBN 1-4020-3246-3
  • Clément G, Eckardt J (2005) Influence of the gravitational vertical on geometric visual illusions. Acta Astronautica 56: 911-917
  • Clément G, Reschke M, Wood S (2005) Neurovestibular and sensorimotor studies in space and Earth benefits. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6: 267-283
  • Clément G, Deguine O (2005) Perception d'inclinaison et contre-rotation oculaire chez des sujets à symptomatologie otolithique pendant la rotation excentrée et l'OVAR. Société Internationale d'Otoneurologie, SIO News 5: 1-3
  • Moore S, Cohen B, Raphan T, Berthoz A, Clément G (2005) Spatial orientation of optokinetic nystagmus and ocular pursuit during orbital space flight. Experimental Brain Research 160: 38-59
  • Olsen M, Arnesen T, Sylvestre B, Clément G (2005) Perception of body longitudinal axis in microgravity during parabolic flight. IAF/IAC-05-A1.4.04. Proceedings of the 56th International Astronautical Congress, October 17-21, 2005, Fukuoka, Japan
  • Villard E, Tintó Garcia-Moreno F, Peter N, Clément G (2005) Understanding visual perception in the perspective of gravity. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 12: 51-52
  • Villard E, Tintó Garcia-Moreno F, Peter N, Clément G (2005) Geometric visual illusions in microgravity during parabolic flight. NeuroReport 16: 1395-1398
      2006
  • Clément G, Slenzka K (2006) Fundamentals of Space Biology. Research on Cells, Animals, and Plants in Space. Microcosm Press: El Segundo, CA, and Springer: New York, ISBN: 0-387-33113-1
  • Clément G, Lockerd A, Lathan C (2006) Mental representation of spatial cues during space flight. Habitation 10 (3/4): 204-205
  • Clément G, Lathan C, Lockerd A, Bukley A (2006) Mental representation of spatial cues in microgravity: Writing and drawing tests. IAF/IAC-06-A1.3.03. Proceedings of the 57th International Astronautical Congress, October 2-6, 2006, Valencia, Spain


L'ouvrage "Fundamentals of Space Medicine" publié en ChinoisDédicade du Pr. Chen, co-auteur et Directeur du Centre des Astronautes de Chine

      2007
  • Bukley A, Lawrence D, Clément G (2007) Generating artificial gravity onboard the Space Shuttle. Acta Astronautica 60: 472-478
  • Clément G (2007) Fundamentals of Space Medicine. 3rd Edition. Microcosm Press: El Segundo, CA, and Springer: New York, ISBN 1-4020-3246-3
  • Clément G, Arnesen TN, Olsen MH, Sylvestre B (2007) Perception of longitudinal body axis in microgravity during parabolic flight. Neuroscience Letters 413: 150-153
  • Clément G, Denise P, Reschke MF, Wood SJ (2007) Human ocular counter-rotation and roll tilt perception during off-vertical axis rotation after spaceflight. Journal of Vestibular Research 17: 209-215
  • Clément G, Deguine O, Bourg M, Pavy-LeTraon A (2007) Effects of vestibular training on motion sickness, nystagmus, and subjective vertical. Journal of Vestibular Research 17: 227-237
  • Clément G, Bukley AP (2007) Artificial Gravity. Microcosm Inc: Hawthorne, CA, and Springer: New York, ISBN: 978-0-387-70712-9
  • Clément G (2007) Using your head: Cognition and sensorimotor functions in microgravity. Gravitational and Space Biology 20 (2): 65-78 
  • Wood SJ, Reschke MF, Sarmiento L, Clément G (2007) Tilt and translation motion perception during off-vertical axis rotation. Experimental Brain Research 182: 365-377
      2008
  • Clément G, Bukley A (2008) Research Recommendations of the ESA Topical Team on Artificial Gravity. Acta Astronautica 63: 783-790
  • Clément G, Lathan CE, Lockerd A (2008) Perception of depth in microgravity during parabolic flight. Acta Astronautica 63: 828-832
  • Clément G, Tilikete C, Courjon JH (2008) Retention of habituation of vestibulo-ocular reflex and sensation of rotation in humans. Experimental Brain Research 190: 307-315
  • Clément G, Chen S (2008) 航天医学基础 [Space Medicine]. China Astronautic Publishing House: Beijing, ISBN: 978-7-80218-309-4
  • Clément G, Reschke MF (2008) Neuroscience in Space. Springer: New York, ISBN: 978-0-387-78949-1
      Sous presse
  • Clément G, Bukley A – Mach's square or diamond phenomenon in microgravity during parabolic flight. Neuroscience Letters
  • Clément G, Deguine O – Explorations vestibulaires issues de la médecine spatiale. In: Electrophysiologie en ORL: Présent et Futur. O Deguine, V Darrouzet (eds) Société Francaise d’ORL, Paris
  • Clément G, Hamilton D – Life in space for life on Earth. In: To The Stars: A 21st Century Guide to Space. J Pelton, A Bukley (eds) Apogee Books, Toronto 
  • Clément G, Lathan CE, Lockerd A, Lorigny E – Mental representation of spatial cues during spaceflight (3DSPACE). Journal of Gravitational Physiology 
  • Clément G, Harm D, Rupert A, Beaton K, Wood S – Ambiguous tilt and translation motion cues in astronauts after space flight (ZAG). Journal of Gravitational Physiology 
  • Clément G – What hypergravity level for a long-radius human centrifuge? Journal of Gravitational Physiology
L'ouvrage "Neuroscience in Space" récemment publié chez Springer décrit toutes les expériences de neuroscience effectuées avant et apres les missions spatiales de 1961 a 2007.

MOTS-CLES
Neurosciences, Système sensori-moteur, Orientation spatiale, Représentation mentale, Microgravité, Adaptation, Habituation vestibulaire, Réflexe vestibulo-oculaire

ADDRESSE
Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil-Bât A3
133, route de Narbonne
31 062 TOULOUSE Cedex
FRANCE

Mise à jour 04/03/2016

Fax : (+33)(0)5-62-17-28-09
Espace et contexte 3D

THEMATIQUE DE RECHERCHE

Représentation interne de l'espace chez l'homme, ou comment des sujets normaux, des astronautes en apesanteur et des patients vestibulo-lésés estiment leur inclinaison par rapport à la verticale, évaluent la distance et la profondeur des objets et se représentent mentalement leur environnement tri-dimensionnel

TECHNIQUES

    Conditions expérimentales

  • Vol orbital : Station Spatiale Internationale, Navette Spatiale
  • Vol parabolique : Airbus A300 Zero-G, NASA C-9
  • Patients vestibulo-lésés
  • Simulations des conditions de vol spatial (simulateur de vol, bed rest, hypergravité)    
     Stimulations
  • Fauteuil tournant autour d'un axe vertical ou incliné
  • Centrifugeuses à bras court (0.5 m) et moyen (3.0 m)
  • Chariot linéaire
  • Lunettes de réalité virtuelle
  • Stimulation optocinétique
  • Stimulation vibrotactile

    Mesures

  • Psychophysique : perception de l'orientation spatiale, du mouvement, des distances
  • Neuropsychologie : représentation mentale (écriture, dessins, illusions visuelles)
  • Comportement : Enregistrement des mouvements des yeux (H/V, torsion, vergence)
  • Imagerie cérébrale


Les astronautes européens s'entrainent sur l'expérience 3DSPACE. Photo ESALogo de l'expérience 3DSPACE. Concept AnthroTronixGreg Chamitoff effectuant 3DSPACE a bord de l'ISS. Photo NASA

RECHERCHES EN COURS

    Station Spatiale Internationale

  • Mental representation of spatial cues during spaceflight (3DSPACE) – G Clément (PI) & C Lathan
  • Microgravity effects on human physiological mechanisms of perception and mental imagery (IRIS) – G  Clément & R Thirsk (PI)
  • Validation of centrifugation as a countermeasure for otolith deconditioning during space flight (SPIN) – F   Wuyts (PI), G Clément, S Moore, B Cohen
    Navette Spatiale
  • Ambiguous tilt and translation motion cues after space flight (ZAG) – G Clément (PI), S Wood, D Harm, A   Rupert     

    Bed Rest

  • Centrifugation as a countermeasure during bed rest (AG) – ESA Artificial Gravity Expert Group (PI): A  Clarke, G Clément, D Linnarsson, B Paloski, R Rittwegger, F Wuyts

    Clinique

  • Perception 3D chez les patients vestibulo-lésés – G Clément & O Deguine
  • Imagerie fonctionnelle pendant la compensation vestibulaire – G Clément & O Deguine

La centrifugeuse SPIN de l'ESA a la Cité des Etoiles a Moscou. Photo ESALa centrifugeuse SAHC de l'ESA est utilisée pour étudier les effets de la gravité artificielle pendant les bed rests. Photo CNRS

ENSEIGNEMENT

  • Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil, Toulouse
  • Centre Régional d’Education Physique et Sportive, Toulouse
  • Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile, Toulouse, France
  • Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne
  • Université Claude Bernard, Lyon
  • Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris
  • International Space University, Strasbourg
  • Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio
  • University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee
  • Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio
Remise du Life Science Book Award de l'IAF a Glasgow (Septembre 2008)

DISTINCTIONS
  • Médaille Mission Sciences de la Vie CNES-NASA (1985)
  • Médaille Coopération Spatiale Franco-Soviétique CNES-Interkosmos (1986)
  • Médaille de Bronze du CNRS (1988)
  • NASA Neurolab Mission Principal Investigator Award (1998)
  • Luigi Napolitano Litterature Award of the International Academy of Astronautics (2005)
  • Life Science Book Award of the International Academy of Astronautics (2008)
ACTUALITE



Article paru dans New Scientist (Septembre 2008)



Article paru dans Libération (Octobre 2008)Article paru dans Aviation Week (Octobre 2008)


PUBLICATIONS


       1981
  • Clément G, Courjon JH, Jeannerod M, Schmid R (1981) Unidirectional habituation of vestibulo-ocular responses by repeated rotational or optokinetic stimulations in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 42: 34-42
  • Jeannerod M, Clément G, Courjon JH, Schmid R (1981) Unilateral habituation of vestibulo-ocular responses in the cat. Annals New York Academy of Sciences 374: 340-351
      1982
  • Lestienne F, Clément G, Lafon JL, Gurfinkel VS, Capraro R, Kojarinov V, Lepsky A (1982) Premier vol habité franco-soviétique: l'expérience "Posture". Proceedings of the 33rd Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, AIAA (ed) New York, IAF 82-183: 1-6
  • Clément G, Lestienne F, Gurfinkel V (1982) Postural muscular activity related to the activie mobilization of the arm – The role of vision. Journal de Physiologie 78: B2-B3

      1983

  • Clément G, Gurfinkel VS, Lestienne F, Lipshits MI, Popov KE (1983) Ajustements posturaux associés à la mobilisation volontaire du bras en situation de microgravité. Comptes-Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris, t 296, série III: 789-792
  • Clément G, Magnin M (1983) Visual influence on postural control in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 52: 429-438
  • Clément G, Droulez J (1983) Microgravity as an Additional Tool for Research in Human Physiology with Emphasis on Sensori-Motor Systems. ESA BR-15, European Space Agency: Noordwijk, ISSN 0250-1589
  • Clément G, Gurfinkel VS, Lestienne F, Lipshits MI, Popov KE (1983) Contrôle de la posture en microgravité. In: Physiologie Spatiale. CNES-CEPADUES (eds) Toulouse, pp 105-118
  • Clément G, Gurfinkel VS, Lestienne F, Lipschits MI, Popov KE (1983) A study of mechanisms of posture maintenance in the weightless state. The Physiologist 26, 6 (Suppl): S86-S89
      1984
  • Clément G, Magnin M (1984) Effects of accessory optic system lesions on vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 55: 49-59
  • Clément G, Gurfinkel VS, Lestienne F, Lipshits MI, Popov KE (1984) Adaptation of postural control to weightlessness. Experimental Brain Research 57: 61-72
  • Lestienne F, Clément G (1984) Ajustements posturaux associés au mouvement du bras en apesanteur. Revue de Médecine Fonctionnelle 17: 123-144
  • Lestienne F, Clément G (1984) Ajustements posturaux associés au mouvement du bras en apesanteur. In: Results of Space Experiment in Physiology and Medicine. AGARD CP-377, 4: 1-9
      1985
  • Clément G, Gurfinkel VS, Lestienne F, Lipshits MI, Popov KE (1985) Changes of posture during transient perturbations in microgravity. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 56: 666-671
  • Clément G, Rézette D (1985) Motor behavior underlying the control of an upside-down vertical posture. Experimental Brain Research 59: 478-484
  • Clément G, Jacquin T, Berthoz A (1985) Habituation of postural readjustments to moving visual scenes. In: Vestibular and Visual Control on Posture and Locomotor Equilibrium. M Igarashi, FO Black (eds) Karger, Basel, pp 99-104
  • Clément G, Lestienne F, Gurfinkel VS (1985) Mechanisms of postural control in weightlessness. In: Vestibular and Visual Control on Posture and Locomotor Equilibrium. M Igarashi, FO Black (eds) Karger, Basel, pp 158-163
  • Courjon JH, Clément G, Schmid R (1985) The influence of interstimulus interval on the development of vestibular habituation to repeated velocity steps. Experimental Brain Research 59: 10-15


      1986
  • Clément G, Viéville T, Lestienne F, Berthoz A (1986) Modifications of gain asymmetry and beating field of vertical optokinetic nystagmus in microgravity. Neuroscience Letters 63: 271-274
  • Clément G, Viéville T, Lestienne F, Berthoz A (1986) Preliminary results of the "Equilibrium and Vertigo" experiment performed during STS 51-G Shuttle spaceflight. In: Space Physiology. JJ Hunt (ed) ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, ESA SP-237, pp 129-135
  • Viéville T, Clément G, Lestienne F, Berthoz A (1986) Adaptive modifications of the optokinetic nystagmus and vestibulo-ocular reflexes in microgravity. In: Adaptive Processes in Visual and Oculomotor Systems. EL Keller, DS Zee (eds) Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 111-120
      1987
  • Clément G, Berthoz A, Lestienne F (1987) Adaptive changes in perception of body orientation and mental image rotation in microgravity. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 58, 9 (Suppl): A159-A163
  • Clément G, André-Deshays C (1987) Motor activity and visually induced postural reactions during two-g and zero-g phases of parabolic flight. Neuroscience Letters 79: 113-116Clément G (1987) Mise en évidence d'une programmation centrale des ajustements posturaux liés aux mouvements volontaires du bras. Science et Motricité 2: 10-14
  • Clément G (1987) La posturographie dans l'étude de la contribution du système vestibulaire au contrôle de la posture. In: Où va la Posturographie? Intérêt de la Posturographie dans le Diagnostic Oto-Neurologique et la Thérapeutique. M Toupet (ed) IPSEN, Paris, pp 8-10
  • Clément G (1987) Etude stabilométrique et électromyographique de la posture debout sur les mains. In: Critique de la Posturologie. PM Gagey (ed) Association Française de Posturologie, Paris, 14, pp 1-4
  • Clément G, Viéville T, Lestienne F, Berthoz A (1987) Adaptive modifications of posture and oculomotor reflexes in microgravity. In: Three Decades of Life Science Research in Space. NASA Life Sciences (ed) Washington DC, pp 216-217 
  • Pozzo T, Clément G (1987) Déterminants sensori-moteurs du maintien de l'appui tendu renversé. In: Recherches en Activité Physique et Sportive. J Van Hoecke (ed) ACAPS-INSEP, Rennes, pp 93-94
      1988
  • Clément G (1988) Adaptation of postural control to long-lasting unusual constraints or repetitive stimulations. In: Posture and Gait: Development, Adaptation and Modulation. B Amblard, A Berthoz, F Clarac (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 145-153 
  • Clément G, Berthoz A (1988) Adaptation of visual-vestibular interaction in microgravity. In: Programs in Space Biomedicine. M Igarashi, AW Holland (eds) USRA/DSB, Houston, pp 1-12
  • Clément G, Lestienne F (1988) Adaptive modifications of postural attitude in conditions of weightlessness. Experimental Brain Research 72: 381-389
  • Clément G, Pozzo T, Berthoz A (1988) Contribution of eye positioning to control of the upside-down standing posture. Experimental Brain Research 73: 569-576
  • Clément G, Berthoz A (1988) Vestibulo-ocular reflex and optokinetic nystagmus in microgravity. Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 42: 1-4
  • Clément G, Berthoz A, Pozzo T (1988) De la posture debout sur les mains. Convergence, Lynx Optique (ed) Paris, n°36, pp 9-10 
  • Lestienne F, Clément G (1988) Adaptation sensorimotrice à l'absence de pesanteur: le contrôle postural. Médecine Aéronautique et Spatiale XXVII, 105, pp 36-40
  • Pozzo T, Clément G, Berthoz A (1988) Etude du contrôle moteur de l'appui tendu renversé sur les mains. Agressologie 29, 9: 649-651
  • Pozzo T, Clément G (1988) Application de la stabilométrie à l'étude des mécanismes moteurs d'une figure acrobatique: l'appui tendu renversé. Science et Sports 3: 173-180
      1989
  • Clément G (1989) Les progrès en physiologie humaine: les neurosciences. Proceedings du Colloque International "L'Espace, Facteur de Progrès pour la Médecine de Demain". CNES/CCIT (eds) Toulouse, pp 19-27
  • Clément G, André-Deshays C, Lathan CE (1989) Effects of gravitoinertial force variations on vertical gaze direction during oculomotor reflexes and visual fixation. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 60: 1194-1198
      1990
  • Clément G, Berthoz A (1990) Cross-coupling between horizontal and vertical eye movements during optokinetic nystagmus and optokinetic afternystagmus elicited in microgravity. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm) 109: 179-187
  • Clément G, Lathan CE (1990) Up-down asymmetry of vertical optokinetic nystagmus elicited in microgravity. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 60: 1194-1198
  • Clément G (1990) La physiologie neurosensorielle et l'espace. Bulletin de la Société d'Ophtalmologie 162: 13-21
      1991
  • Clément G, Lathan CE (1991) Effects of static tilt about roll axis on horizontal and vertical optokinetic nystagmus and optokinetic afternystagmus in humans. Experimental Brain Research 84: 335-341
      1992
  • Clément G, Reschke MF, Verrett CM, Wood SJ (1992) Effects of gravitoinertial force variations on optokinetic nystagmus and on perception of visual stimulus orientation. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 63: 771-777
  • Clément G, Wood SJ, Reschke MF (1992) Effects of microgravity on the interaction of vestibular and optokinetic nystagmus in the vertical plane. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 63: 778-784

L'astronaute francais Philippe Perrin effectuant l'expérience OVAR a son retour de la mission STS-111 de la Navette Spatiale.  Photo NASA

      1993
  • Bagiana F, Clément G, Monchoux F, Barer A (1993) Human physiological model. Preparing for the Future. ESA's Technology Programme Quarterly 3: 12-13
  • Clément G (1993) Les retombées médicales en physiologie neurosensorielle spatiale. Bulletin de la Société d'Ophtalmologie 178: 46-65
  • Clément G, Popov KE, Berthoz A (1993) Effects of prolonged weightlessness on human horizontal and vertical optokinetic nystagmus and optokinetic after-nystagmus. Experimental Brain Research 94: 456-462
  • Clément G, Lathan CE, Berthoz A (1993) Up-down asymmetry of vertical optokinetic nystagmus and after-nystagmus elicited in microgravity. IAF/IAA-93-G.1.132. Proceedings of the 44th International Astronautical Congress, October 16-22, 1993, Graz, Austria
      1994
  • Clément G, Berthoz A (1994) Influence of gravity on the processing of information by the central nervous system. Proceedings of the 5th European Symposium on Life Sciences Research in Space. Arcachon, France, Sept 26-Oct 1, 1993, ESA SP-366, Noordwijk, pp 333-338
      1995
  • Clément G (1995) Le contrôle du regard. Nouvelle Revue d'Aéronautique et d'Astronautique 6:49-54
  • Clément G, Braak L, Arénalès O (1995) Analytical definition and proposed concept for the manned infrastructure of a lunar outpost. Acta Astronautica 36: 559-565
  • Clément G, Petropoulos A, Darlot C, Berthoz A (1995) Eye movements and motion perception during off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) at small angles of tilt after spaceflight. Acta OtoLaryngologica (Stockholm) 115: 603-609


 Expériences sur la perception visuelle et l'orientation spatiale effectuées a bord de l'Airbus A300 Zero-G. Photos Novespace & ESA

      1996
  • Clément G (1996) Les retombées de l’espace. Impact Médecin Hebdo 317: 28
  • Clément G, Reschke MF (1996) Neurosensory and sensory-motor functions. In: Biological and Medical Research in Space: An Overview of Life Sciences Research in Microgravity. Moore D, Bie P, and Oser H (eds), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Chapter 4, pp 178-258
  • Clément G, Wood SJ, Reschke MF (1996) Spatial transformation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex during spaceflight. Proceedings of the 6th European Symposium on Life Sciences Research in Space. Trondheim, Norway, June 16-20, 1996, ESA SP-390, Noordwijk, pp 77-81
      1997
  • Clément G, Güell A (1997) Analytical requirements in the biomedical sciences for a lunar observatory. In: A Lunar-Based Analytical Laboratory. CW Gehrke, MK Hobish, RW Zumwalt, M Prost, J Desgrès (eds) A. DEEPAK Publishing, Hampton, Virginia, pp 208-214
  • Cohen B, Clément G, Curthoys I, Moore S, Kubo T, Koizuka I, Dai M, Berthoz A, Raphan T (1997) Adaptation to linear acceleration in space (ATLAS). Spatial orientation of vestibulo-ocular reflex and of velocity storage. Life Sciences Program Task. NASA TM-4801, pp 157-160
  • Lathan CE, Clément G (1997) Adaptation of the neurovestibular system to spaceflight. In: Fundamentals of Space Life Sciences. S Churchill (ed) Krieger Publishing Cie, Malabar FL, Volume 1, Chapter 5, pp 65-82
  • Reschke MF, Berthoz A, Clément G, Cohen B, Igarashi M, Paloski W, Parker D (1997) Canal-otolith interaction studies. Life Sciences Program Task. NASA TM-4801, pp 89-91
  • Torte MP, Clément G, Courjon JH, Magenes G (1997) Absence of habituation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 116: 73-82
      1998
  • Bellossi F, Clément G, Cohen B, Cork M (1998) EDEN. A payload dedicated to neurovestibular research for Neurolab. Acta Astronautica 42, 1-8: 59-67 
  • Bellossi F, Clément G, Cohen B, Moore S, Cork M (1998) EDEN: Advanced neurovestibular research facility used onboard Neurolab: Performances and preliminary results. IAF/IAA-98-G.1.05. Proceedings of the 49th International Astronautical Congress, Sept 28-Oct 2, 1998; Melbourne, Australia
  • Clément G (1998) Alteration of eye movements and motion perception in microgravity. Brain Research Reviews 28: 161-172
  • Clément G (1998) Astronautes: Une étonnante faculté d’adaptation. Science et Vie 204 (septembre 1998), pp 78-79
  • Clément G (1998) Orientation spatiale en apesanteur. Pour la Science 253 (novembre 1998), pp 48-49
  • Clément G, Lathan CE (1998) Effects of hypergravity on optokinetic after-nystagmus and perceived direction of optokinetic stimulation. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 69: 583-589
  • Clément G, Lathan CE (1998) Postural reactions induced by vertical motion of visual scenes in humans and the effects of weightlessness. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm) 118: 466-473
      1999
  • Clément G (1999) Space biology. In: Keys to Space. A Houston, M Rycroft (eds) McGraw Hill, Boston, Chapter 18.1, pp 18-3 - 18-12
  • Clément G (1999) Neuroscience. In: Keys to Space. A Houston, M Rycroft (eds) McGraw Hill, Boston, Chapter 18.5, pp 18-35 - 18-42
  • Clément G, Wood SJ, Lathan CE, Peterka RJ, Reschke MF (1999) Effects of body orientation and rotation axis on pitch visual-vestibular interaction. Journal of Vestibular Research 9: 1-11
  • Clément G, Wood SJ, Reschke MF, Berthoz A, Igarashi M (1999) Yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interaction in weightlessness. Journal of Vestibular Research 9: 207-220
  • Moore ST, Cohen B, Clément G, Raphan T (1999) Low-frequency otolith function in microgravity: a re-evaluation of the otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation (OTTR) hypothesis. Proceedings of the First Biennal Space Biomedical Investigators’ Workshop. January 11-13, 1999, League City, Texas, pp 425-428
L'astronaute francais Léopold Eyards effectuant l'expérience ZAG a son retour de l'ISS (Mai 2008). Photo NASA
         

      2000
  • Lathan CE, Wang Z, Clément G (2000) Changes in the vertical size of a three-dimensional object drawn in weightlessness by astronauts. Neuroscience Letters 295: 37-40
    Moore ST, Clément G, Raphan T, Cohen B (2000) The human response to artificial gravity in a weightlessness environment: Results from the Neurolab centrifugation experiments. In: Space Technology and Applications International Forum 2000. MS El-Genk (ed) American Institute of Physics, College Park, pp 206-2111
      2001
  • Clément G (2001) The human sensory and balance system. In: A World Without Gravity. B Fitton, B Battrick (eds) ESA Publication Division, Noordwijk, SP-1251, pp 93-111
  • Clément G, Moore S, Raphan T, Cohen B (2001) Perception of tilt (somatogravic illusion) in response to sustained linear acceleration during space flight. Experimental Brain Research 138: 410-418
  • Clément G, Deguine O, Parant M, Costes-Salon MC, Vasseur-Clausen P, Pavy Le Traon A (2001) Effects of cosmonaut vestibular training on vestibular function prior to spaceflight. European Journal of Applied Physiology 85: 539-545
  • Clément G, Deguine O, Vasseur-Claussen P, Pavy-Le Traon A (2001) Effets d’un entraînement vestibulaire sur les cinétoses et le nystagmus chez le sujet sain. In: Dysfonctionnements du Système Vestibulaire. Compensation et Rééducation. M Lacour (ed) Editions Solal, Marseille, pp 247-255
  • Deguine O, Clément G, Calmels MN (2001) Les explorations de la posture et de l’équilibre: Perspectives d’avenir. Les Cahiers d’ORL XXXV 8: 403-408
  • Moore S, Clément G, Raphan T, Cohen B (2001) Ocular counterrolling induced by centrifugation during orbital space flight. Experimental Brain Research 137: 323-335
  • Viguier A, Clément G, Trotter Y (2001) Distance perception within near visual space. Perception 30: 115-124
      2002
  • Clément G, Flandrin JM, Courjon JH (2002) Comparison between habituation of the cat vestibulo-ocular reflex by velocity steps and sinusoidal vestibular stimulation in the dark. Experimental Brain Research 142: 259-267
  • Clément G, Maciel F, Deguine O (2002) Perception of tilt and ocular torsion of normal human subjects during eccentric rotation. Otology and Neurotology 23: 958-966
  • Deguine O, Clément G, Pavy-LeTraon A (2002) Effets de l’entraînement vestibulaire sur la fonction vestibulaire. Le Spécialiste de Médecine du Sport 40: 21-23
  • Maciel F, Clément G (2002) Evaluating object distance: Implication for space research. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 9: 47-48
      2003
  • Clément G (2003) Fundamentals of Space Medicine. Microcosm Press: El Segundo, CA, and Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, ISBN 1-4020-1598-4
  • Clément G (2003) A review of the effects of space flight on the asymmetry of vertical optokinetic and vestibulo-ocular reflexes. Journal of Vestibular Research 13: 255-263
  • Clément G, Angerer O, Schmitt D (2003) Life in a spin—What has been learnt from space. ESA Bulletin 116: 38-48
  • Clément G, Berthoz A, Cohen B, Moore S, Curthoys I, Dai M, Koizuka I, Kubo T, Raphan T (2003) Perception of the spatial vertical during centrifugation and static tilt. In: The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space. J Buckey, J Homick (eds) US Government Printing Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, NASA SP-2003-535, pp 5-10
  • Cohen B, Clément G, Moore S, Curthoys I, Dai M, Koizuka I, Kubo T, Raphan T (2003) Adaptation of linear acceleration in space (ATLAS) experiments: Equipment and procedure. In: The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space. J Buckey, J Homick (eds) US Government Printing Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, NASA SP-2003-535, pp 279-284
  • Moore S, Cohen B, Clément G, Curthoys I, Dai M, Koizuka I, Kubo T, Raphan T (2003) Ocular counter-rolling during centrifugation and static tilt. In: The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space. J Buckey, J Homick (eds) US Government Printing Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, NASA SP-2003-535, pp 11-17
  • Moore S, Clément G, Dai M, Raphan T, Cohen B (2003) Ocular and perceptual responses to linear acceleration in microgravity: Alterations in otolith function on the COSMOS and Neurolab flights. Journal of Vestibular Research 13: 377-393
  • Reber A, Courjon JH, Denise P, Clément G (2003) Vestibular decompensation in labyrinthectomized rats placed in weightlessness during parabolic flight. Neuroscience Letters 344: 122-126

Ouvrages publiés dans la Space Technology Series de Springer (2005, 2006, 2007)

      2004
  • Arnesen T, Olsen M, Sylvestre B, Goulding C, Clément G (2004) Human perception of body longitudinal axis in parabolic flight. IAF/IAC-04-G.P02. Proceedings of the 55th International Astronautical Congress, October 2-8, 2004, Vancouver, Canada
  • Clément G (2004) Adaptation to linear acceleration during and after space flight. Advances in Space Research 161 (Suppl): 79-85
  • Clément G, Pavy-Le Traon A (2004) Centrifugation as a countermeasure during actual and simulated spaceflight: A review. European Journal of Applied Physiology 92: 235-248
  • Clément G, Maciel F (2004) Adjustment of the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as a function of perceived target distance. Neuroscience Letters 366: 115-119
  • Clément G, Trotter Y (2004) Critique de l'ouvrage "Visions de Mars". Pour la Science 326: 154
    Scheid P, Barrero E, Boon JP, Clément G, Dobson A, Gruen GU, Gunga HC, Heppener M, Moreau R, Westall F, Tropea C (2004) European Utilisation Plan for the International Space Station. European Space Agency (ed), Paris. ESA BR-1270
      2005
  • Arnesen TA, Olsen MH, Sylvestre B, Clément G (2005) Perception of body vertical in microgravity during parabolic flight. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 12: 17-18
  • Clément G (2005) The maintenance of physiological function in humans during spaceflight. International SportMed Journal 6 (4): 185-198
  • Clément G (2005) Human balance system. In: Benefits of Human Spaceflight. A Wilson (ed) ESA BR-230, ESA Publication Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, pp 25-26
  • Clément G (2005) Fundamentals of Space Medicine. 2nd Edition. Microcosm Press: El Segundo, CA, and Springer: New York, ISBN 1-4020-3246-3
  • Clément G, Eckardt J (2005) Influence of the gravitational vertical on geometric visual illusions. Acta Astronautica 56: 911-917
  • Clément G, Reschke M, Wood S (2005) Neurovestibular and sensorimotor studies in space and Earth benefits. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6: 267-283
  • Clément G, Deguine O (2005) Perception d'inclinaison et contre-rotation oculaire chez des sujets à symptomatologie otolithique pendant la rotation excentrée et l'OVAR. Société Internationale d'Otoneurologie, SIO News 5: 1-3
  • Moore S, Cohen B, Raphan T, Berthoz A, Clément G (2005) Spatial orientation of optokinetic nystagmus and ocular pursuit during orbital space flight. Experimental Brain Research 160: 38-59
  • Olsen M, Arnesen T, Sylvestre B, Clément G (2005) Perception of body longitudinal axis in microgravity during parabolic flight. IAF/IAC-05-A1.4.04. Proceedings of the 56th International Astronautical Congress, October 17-21, 2005, Fukuoka, Japan
  • Villard E, Tintó Garcia-Moreno F, Peter N, Clément G (2005) Understanding visual perception in the perspective of gravity. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 12: 51-52
  • Villard E, Tintó Garcia-Moreno F, Peter N, Clément G (2005) Geometric visual illusions in microgravity during parabolic flight. NeuroReport 16: 1395-1398
      2006
  • Clément G, Slenzka K (2006) Fundamentals of Space Biology. Research on Cells, Animals, and Plants in Space. Microcosm Press: El Segundo, CA, and Springer: New York, ISBN: 0-387-33113-1
  • Clément G, Lockerd A, Lathan C (2006) Mental representation of spatial cues during space flight. Habitation 10 (3/4): 204-205
  • Clément G, Lathan C, Lockerd A, Bukley A (2006) Mental representation of spatial cues in microgravity: Writing and drawing tests. IAF/IAC-06-A1.3.03. Proceedings of the 57th International Astronautical Congress, October 2-6, 2006, Valencia, Spain


L'ouvrage "Fundamentals of Space Medicine" publié en ChinoisDédicade du Pr. Chen, co-auteur et Directeur du Centre des Astronautes de Chine

      2007
  • Bukley A, Lawrence D, Clément G (2007) Generating artificial gravity onboard the Space Shuttle. Acta Astronautica 60: 472-478
  • Clément G (2007) Fundamentals of Space Medicine. 3rd Edition. Microcosm Press: El Segundo, CA, and Springer: New York, ISBN 1-4020-3246-3
  • Clément G, Arnesen TN, Olsen MH, Sylvestre B (2007) Perception of longitudinal body axis in microgravity during parabolic flight. Neuroscience Letters 413: 150-153
  • Clément G, Denise P, Reschke MF, Wood SJ (2007) Human ocular counter-rotation and roll tilt perception during off-vertical axis rotation after spaceflight. Journal of Vestibular Research 17: 209-215
  • Clément G, Deguine O, Bourg M, Pavy-LeTraon A (2007) Effects of vestibular training on motion sickness, nystagmus, and subjective vertical. Journal of Vestibular Research 17: 227-237
  • Clément G, Bukley AP (2007) Artificial Gravity. Microcosm Inc: Hawthorne, CA, and Springer: New York, ISBN: 978-0-387-70712-9
  • Clément G (2007) Using your head: Cognition and sensorimotor functions in microgravity. Gravitational and Space Biology 20 (2): 65-78 
  • Wood SJ, Reschke MF, Sarmiento L, Clément G (2007) Tilt and translation motion perception during off-vertical axis rotation. Experimental Brain Research 182: 365-377
      2008
  • Clément G, Bukley A (2008) Research Recommendations of the ESA Topical Team on Artificial Gravity. Acta Astronautica 63: 783-790
  • Clément G, Lathan CE, Lockerd A (2008) Perception of depth in microgravity during parabolic flight. Acta Astronautica 63: 828-832
  • Clément G, Tilikete C, Courjon JH (2008) Retention of habituation of vestibulo-ocular reflex and sensation of rotation in humans. Experimental Brain Research 190: 307-315
  • Clément G, Chen S (2008) 航天医学基础 [Space Medicine]. China Astronautic Publishing House: Beijing, ISBN: 978-7-80218-309-4
  • Clément G, Reschke MF (2008) Neuroscience in Space. Springer: New York, ISBN: 978-0-387-78949-1
      Sous presse
  • Clément G, Bukley A – Mach's square or diamond phenomenon in microgravity during parabolic flight. Neuroscience Letters
  • Clément G, Deguine O – Explorations vestibulaires issues de la médecine spatiale. In: Electrophysiologie en ORL: Présent et Futur. O Deguine, V Darrouzet (eds) Société Francaise d’ORL, Paris
  • Clément G, Hamilton D – Life in space for life on Earth. In: To The Stars: A 21st Century Guide to Space. J Pelton, A Bukley (eds) Apogee Books, Toronto 
  • Clément G, Lathan CE, Lockerd A, Lorigny E – Mental representation of spatial cues during spaceflight (3DSPACE). Journal of Gravitational Physiology 
  • Clément G, Harm D, Rupert A, Beaton K, Wood S – Ambiguous tilt and translation motion cues in astronauts after space flight (ZAG). Journal of Gravitational Physiology 
  • Clément G – What hypergravity level for a long-radius human centrifuge? Journal of Gravitational Physiology
L'ouvrage "Neuroscience in Space" récemment publié chez Springer décrit toutes les expériences de neuroscience effectuées avant et apres les missions spatiales de 1961 a 2007.

MOTS-CLES
Neurosciences, Système sensori-moteur, Orientation spatiale, Représentation mentale, Microgravité, Adaptation, Habituation vestibulaire, Réflexe vestibulo-oculaire

ADDRESSE
Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil-Bât A3
133, route de Narbonne
31 062 TOULOUSE Cedex
FRANCE

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